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North Carolina



North Carolina is a southern state in the United States. North Carolina is one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution. It is bordered by South Carolina on the south, Georgia on the southwest, Tennessee on the west, Virginia on the north, and the Atlantic Ocean on the east. It was named in honor of King Charles I of England.

Originally inhabited by a number of native tribes, including the Cherokee, North Carolina was the first American territory the English attempted to colonize. Sir Walter Raleigh, for whom the state capital is named, chartered two colonies on the North Carolina coast in the late 1580s, both ending in failure. The demise of one, the "Lost Colony" of Roanoke Island, remains one of the great mysteries of American history.

By the late seventeenth century, several permanent settlements had taken hold in the Carolina territory, which encompassed present-day South Carolina and Tennessee as well. In 1712, North Carolina became a separate colony. It reverted to a royal colony seventeen years later. In April 1776, the colony became the first to instruct its delegates to the Continental Congress to vote for independence from the British crown.

On November 21, 1789, North Carolina ratified the Constitution to become the twelfth state in the Union. Between the American Revolutionary War and the American Civil War, North Carolina worked to establish its state and local governments. In 1840, it completed the state capitol building in Raleigh, still standing today. In mid-century the state′s rural and commercial areas were further connected by construction of a 129 mile wooden plank road, known as a "farmer′s railroad," from Fayetteville in the east to Bethania (northwest of Winston-Salem).

In 1860 North Carolina was a slave state with a population of slightly less than 1 million, approximately one-third of whom were enslaved. There were also about 30,000 free blacks residing in the state. Somewhat divided on whether to support the North or the South in the Civil War, North Carolina was the last state to secede from the Union in 1861. Governor Ellis, leader of the state at the war′s beginning in 1861, famously declared in response to President Lincoln′s call for 75,000 troops to suppress the "rebellion" that "you can get no troops from North Carolina." However, under his leadership and that of his successor, Governor Zebulon Baird Vance of Asheville, elected in 1862, the Tar Heel State did provide 125,000 troops to the Confederacy, more than any other Confederate state. Approximately 40,000 of those troops never returned home, dead of battlefield wounds, disease and privation. Although few major engagements took place in North Carolina itself, her troops served in virtually all the major battles of the Army of Northern Virginia. The largest battle that occurred in North Carolina was at Bentonville, a futile attempt by Confederate Gen. Joseph Johnston to slow Union Gen. Sherman′s advance into the Carolinas in the spring of 1865. Gen. Johnston surrendered one of the largest Confederate armies near Durham in late April 1865, weeks after Gen. Robert E. Lee′s surrender at Appomattox, but the final surrender in North Carolina came at Waynesville in Western North Carolina in May, when remnants of Thomas′ Cherokee Legion laid down their arms.

Over the past century, North Carolina has grown to become a leader in agriculture and industry. The state′s industrial output--mainly textiles, chemicals, electrical equipment, paper and paper products--ranked eighth in the nation in the early 1990s. Tobacco, one of North Carolina′s earliest sources of revenue, remains vital to the local economy. Recently, technology has become a driving force in the state, especially with the creation of the Research Triangle Park between Raleigh and Durham in the 1950′s.

North Carolina has had three constitutions:

  • 1776: This one was ratified December 18, 1776, as the first constitution of the independent state. The Declaration of Rights was ratified the preceding day.
  • 1868: This was framed in accordance with the Reconstruction Acts after North Carolina was readmitted into the Union. It was a major reorganization and modification of the original into fourteen articles.
  • 1971: This is a minor consolidation of the 1868 constitution and subsequent amendments.

North Carolina State Symbols

Official state symbols of the U.S. state of North Carolina, listed in the order adopted by the North Carolina General Assembly:

  • State Motto: Esse quam videri ("To be, rather than to seem"), adopted 1893
  • State Song: "The Old North State", adopted 1927
  • State Flower: Dogwood (Cornus florida), adopted 1941
  • State Bird: Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), adopted March 5, 1943
  • State Colors: The red and blue of the Flag of North Carolina and Flag of the United States
  • State Toast: see North Carolina State Toast; adopted 1957
  • State Tree: Pine tree, adopted 1963
  • State Shell: Scotch Bonnet, adopted 1965
  • State Mammal: Gray squirrel, adopted 1969
  • State Salt Water Fish: Channel Bass, adopted 1971
  • State Insect: Honeybee, adopted 1973
  • State Precious Stone: Emerald, adopted 1973
  • State Reptile: Eastern box turtle, adopted 1979
  • State Rock: Granite, adopted 1979
  • State Beverage: Milk, adopted 1987
  • State Historical Boat: Shad Boat, adopted 1987
  • State Dog: Plott Hound, adopted August 12, 1989
  • State Military Academy: Oak Ridge Military Academy, adopted 1991
  • State Fruit: Sweet potato, adopted 1995
  • State Red Berry: Strawberry, adopted 2001
  • State Blue Berry: Blueberry, adopted 2001
  • State Fruit: Scuppernong grape, adopted 2001
  • State Wildflower: Carolina Lily (Lilium michauxii), adopted 2003

 

NORTH CAROLINA COUNTIES


Davie
Surry
Forsyth
Yadkin
Rowan
Stokes
Rockingham
Alamance
Randolph
Chatham
Montgomery
Caswell
Guilford
Orange
Lee
Davidson
Moore
Person
Harnett
Wake
Durham
Johnston
Granville
Franklin
Wayne
Vance
Warren
Nash
Edgecombe
Bertie
Beaufort
Pitt
Wilson
Hertford
Northampton
Halifax
Hyde
Martin
Greene
Pasquotank
Dare
Currituck
Perquimans
Camden
Tyrrell
Gates
Washington
Chowan
Stanly
Gaston
Anson
Iredell
Cleveland
Rutherford
Cabarrus
Mecklenburg
Lincoln
Union
Cumberland
Sampson
Robeson
Bladen
Duplin
Richmond
Scotland
Hoke
New Hanover
Brunswick
Pender
Columbus
Onslow
Lenoir
Pamlico
Carteret
Craven
Jones
Catawba
Avery
Watauga
Wilkes
Caldwell
Burke
Ashe
Alleghany
Alexander
Buncombe
Swain
Mitchell
Jackson
Transylvania
Henderson
Yancey
Haywood
Polk
Graham
Macon
Mcdowell
Madison
Cherokee
Clay

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