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Tennessee



Tennessee is a U.S. state located in the Southern United States. In 1796, it became the sixteenth state to join the union. Tennessee is known as the "Volunteer State", a nickname it earned during the War of 1812, in which volunteer soldiers from Tennessee played a prominent role especially during the Battle of New Orleans.

History

The area now known as Tennessee was first settled by Paleo-Indians nearly 11,000 years ago. The names of the cultural groups that inhabited the area between first settlement and the time of European contact are unknown, but several distinct cultural phases have been named by archaeologists, including Archaic, Woodland, and Mississippian whose chiefdoms were the cultural predecessors of the Muscogee people who inhabited the Tennessee River Valley prior to Cherokee migration into the river′s headwaters.

When Spanish explorers first visited the area, led by Hernando de Soto in 1539–43, it was inhabited by tribes of Muscogee and Yuchi people. Possibly because of European diseases devastating the Native tribes, which would have left a population vacuum, and also from expanding European settlement in the north, the Cherokee moved south from the area now called Virginia. As European colonists spread into the area, the native populations were forcibly displaced to the south and west, including all Muscogee and Yuchi peoples, including the Chickasaw and Choctaw. From 1838 to 1839, nearly 17,000 Cherokees were forced to march from Eastern Tennessee to Indian Territory west of Arkansas. This came to be known as the Trail of Tears, as an estimated 4,000 Cherokees died along the way.1

Tennessee was admitted to the Union in 1796 as the 16th state; it was created by taking the north and south borders of North Carolina and extending them with only one small deviation to the Mississippi River, Tennessee′s western boundary.

The American Civil War to a large extent was fought in Tennessee. It was the last border state to secede from the Union when it joined the Confederate States of America on June 8, 1861. Many battles were fought in the state—most of them Union victories. Ulysses S. Grant and the U.S. Navy captured control of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers in February 1862, and held off the Confederate counterattack at Shiloh in April. Capture of Memphis and Nashville gave the U.S. control of the western and middle sections, and was confirmed at the battle of Murfreesboro in early January 1863. But the Confederates held East Tennessee despite the strength of Unionist sentiment there, with the exception of extremely pro-Confederate Sullivan County. The Confederates besieged Chattanooga in early fall 1863, but were driven off by Grant in November. The last major battles came when the Confederates invaded in November 1865 and were checked at Franklin, then totally destroyed by George Thomas at Nashville, in December. Meanwhile Andrew Johnson, a civilian appointed by Lincoln, was the military governor, and slavery was abolished.

After the war, Tennessee adopted a new constitution that abolished slavery (February 22, 1865), ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution on July 18, 1866, and was the first state readmitted to the Union (July 24 of the same year). Because it ratified the Fourteenth Amendment, Tennessee was the only state that seceded from the Union that did not have a military governor during Reconstruction.

The Nashville Republican Banner on January 4, 1868, published an editorial calling for a counter-revolutionary movement to unseat Republican rule and restore the racial subjugation of the region′s blacks. "In this State," the paper argued, "reconstruction has perfected itself and done its worst. It has organized a government which is as complete a close corporation as may be found, it has placed the black man over the white as the agent and prime-move of domination; it has constructed a system of machinery by which all free guarantees, privileges and opportunities are removed from the people.... The impossibility of casting a free vote in Tennessee short of a revolutionary movement ... is an undoubted fact." The Banner in conclusion urged readers to ignore the presidential election and instead put energies into building "a local movement here at home" that would end Republican rule. [cited in Harcourt 2005]

In 1897, the state celebrated its centennial of statehood (albeit one year late) with a great exposition.

The need to create work for the unemployed during the Great Depression, the desire for rural electrification, and the desire to control the annual spring floods on the Tennessee River drove the creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority, the nation′s largest public utility, in 1933.

During World War II, Oak Ridge was selected as a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory, one of the principal sites for the Manhattan Project′s production and isolation of weapons-grade fissile material.

Tennessee celebrated its bicentennial in 1996 after a yearlong statewide celebration entitled "Tennessee 200" by opening a new state park (Bicentennial Mall) at the foot of Capitol Hill in Nashville.

State symbols

  • State amphibian – Tennessee cave salamander
  • State bird – Mockingbird
  • State game bird – Bobwhite quail
  • State butterfly – Zebra swallowtail
  • State sport fish – Smallmouth bass
  • State commercial fish – Channel catfish
  • State cultivated flower – Iris
  • State wild flowers – Passion flower and Tennessee echinacea
  • State insects – Firefly and lady beetle
  • State agricultural insect – Honey bee
  • State wild animal – Raccoon
  • State horse – Tennessee Walking Horse
  • State reptile – Eastern box turtle
  • State tree – Tulip poplar
  • State evergreen tree – Eastern red cedar
  • State beverage – Milk
  • State dance – Square dance
  • State fruit – Tomato
  • State fossil – Pterotrigonia (Scabrotrigonia) thoracica
  • State gem – Tennessee River pearl
  • State mineral – Agate
  • State rock – Limestone
  • State motto – Agriculture and Commerce
  • State poem – "Oh Tennessee, My Tennessee" by Admiral William Lawrence
  • State slogan – Tennessee - America at its Best
  • State songs – 7 songs

TENNESSEE COUNTIES


Robertson
Davidson
Dekalb
Williamson
Cheatham
Cannon
Coffee
Marshall
Bedford
Sumner
Stewart
Hickman
Dickson
Smith
Rutherford
Montgomery
Houston
Wilson
Trousdale
Humphreys
Macon
Perry
Warren
Lincoln
Maury
Grundy
Hamilton
Mcminn
Franklin
Polk
Bradley
Monroe
Rhea
Meigs
Sequatchie
Marion
Moore
Bledsoe
Shelby
Washington
Greene
Sullivan
Johnson
Hawkins
Carter
Unicoi
Blount
Anderson
Claiborne
Grainger
Cocke
Campbell
Morgan
Knox
Cumberland
Jefferson
Scott
Sevier
Loudon
Roane
Hancock
Hamblen
Union
Crockett
Tipton
Dyer
Hardeman
Fayette
Haywood
Lauderdale
Lake
Carroll
Benton
Henry
Weakley
Obion
Gibson
Madison
Mcnairy
Decatur
Hardin
Henderson
Chester
Wayne
Giles
Lawrence
Lewis
Putnam
Fentress
Overton
Pickett
Clay
White
Jackson
Van Buren

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